AmnioStem for Treatment of Stroke

  • —Rat amniotic fluid stem cells generated similar to protocol described in our issued patent ADMINISTERED INTRAVENOUSLY
  • Experiments performed at Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida
  • —Published in peer-reviewed journal PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43779

Motor deficits were ameliorated in the AmnioStem cell-transplanted stroke animals


Results revealed that all animals exhibited no detectable bias in swing activity at baseline (p>0.05) (A) and all animals learned to balance on the rotating rod for 60 seconds (p>0.05) (B). EBST revealed a significant biased swing activity on day 2 post-MCAo. EBST conducted on day 60 post-stroke detected a significant decrease in swing bias in the AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to the vehicle-infused stroke animals (*p<0.0001) (A). Rotarod test revealed significant deterioration in motor coordination on day 2 post-MCAo, but on day 60 post-MCAo revealed that the AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals exhibited significantly increased time spent balancing on the rotating rod compared to the vehicle-infused stroke animals (*p<0.0001) (B).


EBST is a measure of asymmetrical motor behavior that does not require animal training or drug injection [20]. The rats were held, in the vertical axis, approximately 1 inch from the base of its tail and then elevated to an inch above the surface on which it has been resting. The frequency and direction of the swing behavior were recorded for over 20 tail elevations. A swing was counted when the head of the rat moved more than 10 degrees from the vertical axis to either side. Rats with unilateral ischemic stroke exhibited significant biased swing activity to the right (ipsilateral side), while those with no unilateral ischemic stroke displayed equal number of swings to the right and left. The total number of swings made to the biased side was divided by 20 to get percentages of the swings. For the criterion of successful MCAo model completion, biased swing behavior was set at 70% or higher.

Rotarod test was also performed to evaluate the degree of hemiparesis and coordinated movements. Prior to MCAo surgery, all rats were pre-trained to stay on the accelerating rotarod (Accuscan, USA) at a constant speed of 8 rpm until they could remain on the rotarod for 100 seconds. After 3 consecutive days of pretraining, we performed three trials in which the rotational speed was gradually increased from 4 to 40 rpm within 5 minutes. The longest time the rats remained on the rotarod was measured as the baseline. Thereafter, the data at day 2 and day 60 post-MCAo were presented as percentages of the longest time on the rotarod of three trials (for each time point) relative to the baseline

AngioStem (AFS) Stimulates Proliferation of Endogenous Stem Cells in Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone